The costs of malaria – to individuals, families, communities, nations – are enormous. Malaria occurs mostly in poor, tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Africa is the most affected due to a combination of factors: A very efficient mosquito (Anopheles gambiae complex) is responsible for high transmission.
How does malaria affect Africa?
Once seen as a consequence of poverty, malaria is now regarded as one of its causes. Experts say malaria slows economic growth in Africa by up to 1.3 percent per year. Rural and poor people are especially at risk because they are least likely to have the means to prevent and treat malaria.
Why is malaria so common in Africa south of the Sahara?
About 90% of all malaria deaths in the world today occur in Africa south of the Sahara. This is because the majority of infections in Africa are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous of the four human malaria parasites.
Where in Africa is malaria most common?
The highest transmission is found in Africa South of the Sahara and in parts of Oceania such as Papua New Guinea. In cooler regions, transmission will be less intense and more seasonal. There, P. vivax might be more prevalent because it is more tolerant of lower ambient temperatures.
Why is malaria more common in poor countries?
Malaria is directly related to poverty and economic inequality in underdeveloped countries due to the exponential costs that these countries must face by both individuals and governments.
What is the number one cause of death in Africa?
This statistic shows the leading causes of death in Africa in 2019.
Leading 10 causes of death in Africa in 2019 (in deaths per 100,000 population)
|Characteristic||Deaths per 100,000 population|
|Ischaemic heart disease||429|
Where is malaria the worst?
In 2019, nearly half of the world’s population was at risk of malaria. Most malaria cases and deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the WHO regions of South-East Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, and the Americas are also at risk.
How many humans have died from malaria in history?
Over millennia, its victims have included Neolithic dwellers, early Chinese and Greeks, princes and paupers. In the 20th century alone, malaria claimed between 150 million and 300 million lives, accounting for 2 to 5 percent of all deaths (Carter and Mendis, 2002).
Who does malaria affect the most?
People who are heavily exposed to the bites of mosquitoes infected with P. falciparum are most at risk of dying from malaria. People who have little or no immunity to malaria, such as young children and pregnant women or travelers coming from areas with no malaria, are more likely to become very sick and die.
Has malaria killed half of all humans?
Malaria may have killed half of all the people that ever lived. And more people are now infected than at any point in history. There are up to half a billion cases every year, and about 2 million deaths – half of those are children in sub-Saharan Africa.
Which countries in Africa do not have malaria?
Algeria became the third country in Africa to be officially certified malaria-free in 2020 after Mauritius (1973) and Morocco (2010).
Is malaria curable or not?
Malaria disease can be categorized as uncomplicated or severe (complicated). In general, malaria is a curable disease if diagnosed and treated promptly and correctly. All the clinical symptoms associated with malaria are caused by the asexual erythrocytic or blood stage parasites.
How can we prevent malaria in Africa?
The main method of preventing malaria in high risk areas with one or more malaria cases per 1000 inhabitants per year is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets and the spraying of insecticide on the inside walls of houses.
Why is there no malaria in Europe?
Malaria was eradicated from Europe in the 1970s through a combination of insecticide spraying, drug therapy and environmental engineering. Since then, it has been mostly imported into the continent by international travellers and immigrants from endemic regions.
Who is immune to malaria?
Two genetic factors, both associated with human red blood cells, have been shown to be epidemiologically important. Persons who have the sickle cell trait (heterozygotes for the abnormal hemoglobin gene HbS) are relatively protected against P. falciparum malaria and thus enjoy a biologic advantage.
What countries have malaria problems?
Malaria is found in more than 100 countries, mainly in tropical regions of the world, including:
- large areas of Africa and Asia.
- Central and South America.
- Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
- parts of the Middle East.
- some Pacific islands.